SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW: HOW TEACHERS CULTIVATE CRITICAL THINKING CHARACTER DURING A PANDEMIC

Authors

  • Riza Nur Wahyudi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
  • Muhamad Taufik Hidayat Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31949/jcp.v9i3.5092

Keywords:

critical thinking, character building, learning methods

Abstract

Teachers still need help teaching students critical thinking skills. Several factors cause difficulties in instilling essential thinking skills, including the selection of models and methods and the need for more internet connection stability. The purpose of this study was to reveal (1) What are the learning methods for instilling critical thinking in Indonesian Elementary School during pandemic? (2) What critical thinking indicators are developed in the learning? (3) What are the results of the methods used in instilling critical thinking? The review method used in this paper was a systematic literature review. The search for articles on Google scholar used the help of the Publish or Perish application. The selection and screening stages were carried out by analyzing the article's title, keywords, abstract, background of the problem, author's question, and results and discussion. The results of this study showed that (1) Teachers used varied learning methods during the pandemic, such as e-learning, online classes, and blended learning. (2) The critical thinking indicators developed are formulating problems, analyzing, concluding, evaluating, building basic skills, providing a further explanation, and managing strategies. (3) The learning methods used during the pandemic can instill students' critical thinking characteristics based on several indicators. However, several learning methods still need help instilling critical thinking skills. In conclusion, in training critical thinking skills, several methods can instill students' necessary thinking skills, and some ways cannot instill students' critical thinking skills.

Guru masih kesulitan dalam mengajarkan keterampilan berpikir kritis dari siswa.Beberapa faktor yang menyebabkan kesulitan dalam menanamkan kemampuan berpikir kritis diantaranya yaitu pemilihan model, metode, dan kurang stabilnya koneksi internet yang digunakan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengungkap 1. Bagaimana metode pembelajaran untuk penanaman karakter berpikir kritis di Indonesia selama masa pandemi 2.  Indikator berpikir kritis apa yang dikembangkan dalam model pembelajaran 3. Apa hasil dari metode yang digunakan dalam menanamkan kemampuan berpikir kritis. Metode tinjauan yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah a systematic literature review. Pencarian artikel pada Google scholar menggunakan bantuan aplikasi Publish or perish, karena dengan menggunakan bantuan aplikasi tersebut akan memudahkan dalam mencari artikel. Tahapan seleksi dan penyaringan dilakukan dengan menganalisis judul artikel, kata kunci, abstrak, latar belakang masalah, pertanyaan penulis, serta hasil dan pembahasan. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa (1) Guru menggunakan metode pembelajaran yang bervariasi selama pandemi seperti, e-learning, online class, dan blended learning. (2) indikator berpikir kritis yang dikembangkan adalah merumuskan masalah, menganalisis, menyimpulkan mengevaluasi, membangun keterampilan dasar, memberikan penjelasan lanjut, dan mengatur strategi. (3) Metode pembelajaran yang digunakan selama masa pandemi ada yang dapat menanamkan karakter berpikir kritis siswa berdasarkan beberapa indikator berpikir kritis yang digunakan namun ada beberapa metode pembelajaran yang masih kesulitan untuk menanamkan kemampuan berpikir kritis. Kesimpulannya, dalam melatih kemampuan berpikir kritis ada beberapa metode yang dapat menanamkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa dan ada juga metode yang tidak dapat menanamkan karakter kritis siswa.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agustina, V. N., & Hidayati, Y. M. (2022). Jurnal basicedu. 6(3), 4776–4783. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v6i3.2930

Al-ghadouni, A. B. M. (2021). Critical Thinking : Components , Skills , and Strategies. March. https://doi.org/10.24205/03276716.2020.4000

Angga, A., Abidin, Y., & Iskandar, S. (2022). Penerapan Pendidikan Karakter dengan Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Keterampilan Abad 21. Jurnal Basicedu, 6(1), 1046–1054. https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v6i1.2084

Anjaya, C. E., & Trifosa, R. (2021). Membangun Critical Thinking Anak Didik dalam Pendidikan Kristen Abad ke-21 Melalui Research Based Learning Matius. Regula Fidei : Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Kristen, 6, 74. http://repository.president.ac.id/xmlui/handle/123456789/3700

Arif, J. R., Faiz, A., & Septiani, L. (2021). Penggunaan Media Quiziz Sebagai Sarana Pengembangan Berpikir Kritis Siswa. Edukatif : Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 4(1), 201–210. https://doi.org/10.31004/edukatif.v4i1.1804

Asta Jaya, I. K. M. (2021). Peran Guru Ips Meningkatkan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Melalui Metode Pembelajaran Inkuiri. Sang Acharya : Jurnal Profesi Guru, 2(1), 22. https://doi.org/10.25078/sa.v2i1.3235

Birgili, B. (2015). Creative and Critical Thinking Skills in Problem-based Learning Environments. 2(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.18200/JGEDC.2015214253

Budiman, J. (2021). Evaluasi Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Daring Di Indonesia Selama Masa Pandemi Covid-19. VOX EDUKASI: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Pendidikan, 12(1), 104–113. https://doi.org/10.31932/ve.v12i1.1074

Elfrida, Y., Siregar, Y., Skills, C. T., Cahyaningsih, U., & Nahdi, D. S. (2019). Applying RADEC model in science learning to promoting students ’ critical thinking in elementary Applying RADEC model in science learning to promoting students ’ critical thinking in elementary school. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1321/3/032102

Fahrurrozi, F., Sari, Y., & Fadillah, J. (2022). Studi Literatur : Pemanfaatan Model Problem Based Learning terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis dalam Pembelajaran PKn Siswa Sekolah Dasar. Edukatif : Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 4(3), 4460–4468. https://doi.org/10.31004/edukatif.v4i3.2795

Fitri, H., Fitria, Y., & Sukma, E. (2023). Development of Teaching Materials Based on the Radec Model To Improve the Hots of Grade V Elementary School Students. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendas, 9(1), 108–116. https://www.ejournal.unma.ac.id/index.php/cp/article/view/3847%0Ahttps://www.ejournal.unma.ac.id/index.php/cp/article/download/3847/2526

Fitriani*, W., Suwarjo, S., & Wangid, M. N. (2021). Berpikir Kritis dan Komputasi: Analisis Kebutuhan Media Pembelajaran di Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Indonesia, 9(2), 234–242. https://doi.org/10.24815/jpsi.v9i2.19040

Fitriani, F. (2022). Mathematics Critical Thinking Skills for The Third Grade Elementary School Students on Fractions Material. 10(3), 463–468.

Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: An analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x

Handayani, S. L., Budiarti, I. G., Kusmajid, K., & Khairil, K. (2021). Problem Based Instruction Berbantuan E-Learning : Pengaruhnya terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Peserta Didik Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Basicedu, 5(2), 697–705. https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v5i2.795

Jannah, D. R. N., & Atmojo, I. R. W. (2022). Media Digital dalam Memberdayakan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Abad 21 pada Pembelajaran IPA di Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Basicedu, 6(1), 1064–1074. https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v6i1.2124

Komalasari, I., Ridwan, I. R., & Alfarisa, F. (2020). Upaya Guru Dalam Mengembangkan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Sekolah Dasar Pada Pembelajaran IPS: Studi Literatur. Didaktika, 1(1), 26–35. https://ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/didaktika/article/view/32597

Kuhn, D. (2015). Developmental Model of Critical Thinking. 28(2), 16–25.

Kurniawan, N. A., Saputra, R., Aiman, U., Alfaiz, A., & Sari, D. K. (2020). Urgensi Pendidikan Berpikir Kritis Era Merdeka Belajar bagi Peserta Didik. Tarbawi : Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 16(1), 104–109. https://doi.org/10.32939/tarbawi.v16i01.576

Mahmoud, H. G. (2012). Critical Thinking Dispositions and Learning Styles of Baccalaureate Nursing Students and its Relation to Their Achievement. 2(1), 398–415. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v2i1.1379

Nimah, E. A., Zubaidah, E., & Retnawati, H. (2021). How Indonesian Primary Teacher Motivate and Trains Critical Thinking Skills during Pandemic?: A Phenomenological Study. Jurnal Pendidikan Progresif, 11(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.23960/jpp.v11.i1.202104

Nurdiansyah, D., Ependi, U. H., & Setiawan, D. (2023). Critical Thinking Skills of Elementary School Students Through an Inductive Thinking Learning Model on Animal Breeding Lessons. 7(1), 61–73.

Oktavianingrum, N., Ambarwati, L., & Tarjiah, I. (2020). Peningkatan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Melalui Model Problem Based Learning (Studi Literatur). Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar, 1–14. http://journal.unj.ac.id/unj/index.php/psdpd/article/view/17762/9417

Prafitasari, F., Sukarno, S., & Muzzazinah, M. (2021). Integration of Critical Thinking Skills in Science Learning Using Blended Learning System. International Journal of Elementary Education, 5(2), 434. https://doi.org/10.23887/ijee.v5i3.35788

Rahmadina, P. (2021). Kajian Literatur Tentang Kemampuan Berfikir Kritis Menggunakan Model Pembelajaran Think Pair Share Siswa Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Pendidikan Tambusai, 5(1), 704–765. https://jptam.org/index.php/jptam/article/view/1021

Robinson, P., & Lowe, J. (2015). Literature reviews vs systematic reviews. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(2), 103. https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12393

Sarwanto, L.E.W, F., & Chumdari. (2021). Critical Thinking Skills And Their Impacts Sarwanto , Laksmi Evasufi Widi Fajari & Chumdari Faculty of Teacher Tranning and Education Universitas Sebelas Maret University , Indonesia. 2(2), 161–187.

Sasmita, R. N., & Maryani, E. (2022). Critical Thinking on Social Studies Learning for Elementary School Students. 5(3), 1377–1387.

Sosu, E. M. (2012). The development and psychometric validation of a Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Thinking Skills and Creativity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2012.09.002

Triyanto, J., & Kurniawan, S. B. (2022). Thematic Learning Based on Critical Thinking Skills using Blended Learning System in Elementary School. 6(2), 305–314.

Wahyuningtias, S., Riyanto, Y., & Setyowati, R. N. (2021). the Effect of Blended Learning Model With Telegram Application on Students’ Critical Thinking Ability and Learning Outcomes on Social Studies Subject At Elementary School. JURNAL PAJAR (Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran), 5(5), 1397. https://doi.org/10.33578/pjr.v5i5.8463

Wale, B. D., & Bishaw, K. S. (2020). Effects of using inquiry-based learning on EFL students’ critical thinking skills. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-020-00090-2

Wibowo, N., Suswandari, M., & Widyastuti, E. (2022). Strategi Pembelajaran Daring Melalui Zoom Meeting. Prima Magistra: Jurnal Ilmiah Kependidikan, 3(2), 150–158. https://doi.org/10.37478/jpm.v3i2.1479

Downloads

Published

2023-07-31

How to Cite

Riza Nur Wahyudi, & Muhamad Taufik Hidayat. (2023). SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW: HOW TEACHERS CULTIVATE CRITICAL THINKING CHARACTER DURING A PANDEMIC. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendas, 9(3), 443–452. https://doi.org/10.31949/jcp.v9i3.5092

Issue

Section

Articles