Influence of Fan Behaviour on the Self-Esteem of Amateur Athletes in Kwara State, Nigeria


  • Adebayo Babatunde Samson University of Ilorin
  • Ibraheem Musa Oluwatoyin Illorin of University



Behaviour, Self-Esteem, Amateur, Athletes


Since the inception of organized sports, there have been fans or spectators cheering for their favorite athletes and teams in order to increase their confidence and improve their overall performance. This study examined the influence of fan behaviour on the self-esteem of amateur athletes in Kwara State. The variables investigated are fans’ perception, discrimination, violent reactions, and feelings of disappointment. Descriptive research design of survey method was adopted for the study. The population for the study was amateur athletes from four sports (Football, Basketball, Volleyball, and Handball). Purposive and sample technique was used for the study. The sample for the study consists of 140 amateur athletes in Kwara State. The research instrument for this study was questionnaire developed by the researcher which was used for data collection. Frequency and percentage was used to analyze the demographic data of respondents while the hypotheses were tested using inferential statistic of Chi-square at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of the study revealed that; fans perception of athletes as a failure, discrimination, violent reactions, and feelings of disappointment influenced the self-esteem of amateur athletes. Based on the findings, the study recommends that stakeholders such as media, sports council and relevant agencies of government should conduct enlightenment programmes on management and control of fan behaviour in Kwara State.


Download data is not yet available.


Agas, K., Georgakarakou, C., Mylonakis, J., & Panagiotis, A. (2012). Traveling Abroad internal and external motives toward different sports fan types. International Journal of Business and Management, (7)3, 111-126

Anderson, D. (1979). Sports Spectatorship: An Appropriation of Identity or Appraisal of Self? Review of Sport and Leisure 4, 115-127

Atalay A: Sporgazeteciliği. 1998; 11–15 [in Turkish]

Branscombe, N. R., &Wann, D. L. (1992). Role of identification with a group, arousal, categorization processes, and self-esteem in sports spectator aggression.Human Relations, 45(10), 1013-1033.

Branscombe, N., &Wann, D. (1991a). The Positive Social and Self-Concept Consequences of Sports Team Identification. Journal of Sports and Social Issues, 15, 115-127

Carroll, R. (2001). Racist. Violent. Corrupt: welcome to Serie A. Guardian Unlimited, (Retrieved from,4273,4179057,00.html)

Coakley, J. (2009). Sports in society (10th ed.) Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Coatsworth, J., & Conroy, D. E. (2006). Enhancing the self-esteem of youth swimmers

Cohn, P. (2006) Self-esteem in the athlete. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 38/ December), 9-10.

Cox, H R. (1985). Sport psychology, Concepts and Application. Second Edition.

Daniel L. Wann; Merrill J. Melnick; Gordon W. Russell; (2001). Sport Fans: The Psychology and Social Impact of Spectators. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92463-4.

Dobel, J.P. (2010). The Difference between Fans, Spectators and Audiences. [Online] Availablefrom:

Earnheardt, Adam C.; Haridakis, & Paul M. (May 30, 2013). "Understanding Fans' Consumption and Dissemination of Sports: An Introduction". In Earnheardt,
Adam C.; Haridakis, Paul M.; Hugenberg, Barbara. Sports Fans, Identity, and Socialization: Exploring the Fandemonium. Lexington Books. 1–6. ISBN 978-0739146217.

Earnheardt, Adam C.; Haridakis, Paul M. (2009). "An examination of fan-athlete interaction: Fandom, parasocial interaction, and identification". Ohio Communication Journal.47: 27–53.

Elsevier Emotions, and competition outcome. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16, 347-364

Feltz, D. L., & Lirgg, C. D. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs of athletes, teams, and coaches. Handbook of sport psychology, 2(2001), 340-361.

Fink, J. S., Trail, G. T., & Anderson, D. F. (2002). An examination of team identification: Which motives are most salient to its existence? International Sports Journal, 6(2), 195-207.

Funk, D., & James, J. (2006). Consumer loyalty: The meaning of attachment in the development of sport team allegiance. Journal of Sport Management, 20(2), 189–217.

Hocking, J. (1982). Sports and Spectators: Intra-audience Effects. Journal of Communication, 32, 100-108

Madison, Wis. (2009). For Better or for Worse, Fan Behavior Impacts Athletes. Sport Psychology Consultants Help Athletes Cope with Fans

Madrigal, R. (1995). Cognitive and Affective Determinants of Fan Satisfaction with Sporting Event Attendance. Journal of Leisure Research, 27, 205-227

Madrigal, R., & Chen, J. (2008). Moderating and mediating effects of team identification in regard to causal attributions and summary judgments following a game outcome. Journal of Sport Management, 22(6), 717-733.

Miller, S. (1976). Personality Correlates of Football Fandom. Journal of Human Behavior, 13, 7-13

Peggy, E. Julia, A. (2003). Self-Esteem, Sports and Physical Activity, Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport and Physical Activity.

Rhoden, W. C. (2001, March 30). Tennis, race and much more. The New York Times, D1 (L).

Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.

Shank, M. & Beasley, F. (1998). Fan or Fanatic: Refining a Measure of Sports Involvement. Journal of Sport Behavior, 21, 435-450.

Smith, G. (1988). The Noble Sports Fan.Journal of Sports and Social Issues, 12, 54-65.

Smith, Michael D. (1983). Violence and Sport. Canada. Butterworth & Co.

Spinrad, W. The Function of Spectator Sports. In G. Luschen and G. Sage (Eds) Handbook of Social Science of Sport. Champagne, IL: Stipes. 1981

Wann, D. (1995). Preliminary Validation of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale. Journal of Sports and Social Issues, 19, 377-396.

Wann, D. L. (2006). The causes and consequences of sport team identification. In A. A. Raney & J. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of sports and media (pp. 331–352). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wann, D. L., Hunter, J. L., Ryan, J. A., & Wright, L. A. (2001). The relationship between team identification and willingness of sport fans to consider illegally assisting their team. Social Behavior and Personality, 29(6), 531-53

Wann, D., & Dolan, T. (1994). Influence of Spectator’s Identification on Evaluation of Past, Present and Future Performance of a Sports Team Perceptual and Motor Skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 547-552.

Wann, D.L., & Branscombe, N.R. (1990). Die-hard and fair-weather fans: Effects of identification on BIRGing and CORFing tendencies. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 14(2), 103-117.

Wann, Daniel L. (January 10, 2001). Sport Fans: The Psychology and Social Impact of Spectators. Routledge .ISBN 978-0415924641.




How to Cite

Samson, A. B., & Oluwatoyin, I. M. . (2021). Influence of Fan Behaviour on the Self-Esteem of Amateur Athletes in Kwara State, Nigeria. Indonesian Journal of Sport Management, 1(2), 90–100.