Interaction Effect between Sports Participation and Elite Sports Development
Keywords:Elite sports development, sport Economics, Sports participation.
Elite athlete success in international events and sports development promotes sports participation and this is main concern for many researchers to develop the elite sport. If the economic conditions are not desirable, it is not possible to develop elite sport and promote sports participation to achieve this goal. Economic crises have made the managers employ a deep insight into the effect of the economic conditions of the country on the sport. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction effect of sports participation and elite sports development with an emphasis on macroeconomic variables using an econometric model with a simultaneous equation approach based on the 2SLS method in Iran. The results showed that inflation and unemployment rates have significant and negative effects on sports participation. Rural household income has a significant and positive effect on sports participation but urban household income has a significant and negative effect on sports participation. Standard of living has a significant and positive effect on sports participation. The effects of sports media, sports budget, and Non-athlete participants on elite sports development are significant and positive. Finally, the interaction effect of sports participation and elite sports development is positive and significant.
Andersen, S. S., & Ronglan, L. T. (2012). Nordic elite sport: Same ambitions, different tracks. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Baltagi, B. H. (2005). Econometric analysis of panel data. New York: John Wiley.
Berger, E., & Reilly, N. (2008). Determinants of sport participation among Canadian adolescents. Sport Management Review, 11, 277-307.
Bernard, A. B., & Busse, M. R. (2004). Who wins the Olympic Games: Economic resources and medal totals. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1), 413-417.
Biskup, C., & Pfister, G. (1999a). I would like to be like her/him: Are athletes role-models for boys and girls? European Physical Education Review, 5, 199-218.
Bosscher, V., Shibli, S., Westerbeek, H., & Bottenburg, M. V. (2015). Successful elite sport policies: An international comparison of the sports policy factors leading to International sporting Success (SPLISS 2.0) in 15 nations. Maidenhead: Meyer & Meyer Sport..
Breuer, C., & Hallmann, K. (2011). Die gesellschaftliche Relevanz des Spitzensports in Deutschland. Koln: Sportverlag Strauß.
Breuer, C., & Wicker, P. (2008). Demographic and economic factors concerning the inclusionin the German sport system. A micro-analysis of the years 1985 to 2005. European Journal for Sport and Society, 5, 35-43.
Bromnick, R. D., & Swallow, B. L. (1999). I like being who I am: A study of young people’s ideals. Educational Studies, 25(2), 117-128.
Brouwers, J., Sotiriadoua, P., & Bossche, V. D. (2014). Sport-specific policies and factors that influence internationalsuccess: The case of tennis. Sport Management Review, 18(3), 343-358.
Bittman, M. (2002). Social participation and family welfare: The money and time costs of leisure in Australia. Social Policy & Administration, 36(4), 408-425.
Buford May, R. (2009). The good and bad of it all: Professional black male basketball players as role models for young black male basketball players. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26, 443-461.
Calabuig, F., Núñez-Pomar, J., Prado-Gascó, V., & V.Añó. (2014). Effect of price increases on future intentions of sport consumers. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 729-733.
Cianfrone, B. A., & Zhang, J. J. (2006). Differential effects of television commercials; Athlete endorsements and venue signage during a televised action sports event. Journal of Sport Management,, 20, 322-344.
Côté, J., Salmela, J., Trudel, P., Baria, A., & Russell, S. (1995). The coaching model: A grounded assessment of expert gymnastic coaches' knowledge. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(1), 1-17.
Dawson, A., & Downward, P. (2011). Participation, spectatorship and media coverage in sport: Some initial insights. Cheltenham/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
de Bosscher, V. (2018). A mixed methods approach to compare elite sport policies of nations. A critical reflection on the use of composite indicators in the SPLISS study. Sport in Society, 21(2), 331-355.
de Bosscher, V., De Knop, P., van Bottenburg, M., Shibli, S., & Bingham, J. (2009). Explaining international sporting success: An international comparison of elite sport systems and policies in six countries. Sport Management Review, 12(3), 113-136.
de Bosscher, V., Shibli, S., van Bottenburg, M., de Knop, P., & Truyens, J. (2010). Developing a method for comparing the elite sport systems and policies of nations: A mixed research methods approach. Journal of Sport Management, 24(5), 567-600.
Dousti, M. Goodarzi,M., Asad, H., Khabiri, M (2013). Sport policy in Iran. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 5(1), 151-158.
Downward, P., Dawson, A., & Dejonghe, T. (2009). Sports economics. Amsterdam, Boston: Heidelberg: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier.
Engle, R. F., & Granger, C. W. J. (1987). Cointegration and error correction: Representation, estimation and testing. Econometrica, 55(2), 251-276.
Feddersen, A., Jacobsen, S., & Maennig, W. (2009). Sport heroes and mass participation: The (double) paradox of the ‘German tennis boom. Working Paper No. 29 Hamburg.
Ferragina, E., Tomlinson, M., & Walker, R . (2013). Poverty, participation and choice. The legacy of Peter Townsend. Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York.
Frawley, S., & Cush, A. (2011). Major sporting events and participation legacy: The case of the 2003 Rugby World Cup. Managing Leisure, 16(1), 65-76.
Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G., & O‟Donoghue, T. (2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 351-401.
Funahashi, H., Shibli, S., Sotiriadou, P., Mäkinen, J., Dijk, B., & Bosscher, V. D. (2019). Valuing elite sport success using the contingent valuation method: A transnational study. Sport Management Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2019.05.008
Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G., & O‟Donoghue, T. (2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 351-401.
G.Post, E., E.Green, N., Schaefer, D. A., M.Trigsted, S., Brooks, M. A., A.McGuine, T., . . . R.Bell, D. (2018). Socioeconomic status of parents with children participating on youthclub sport teams. Physical Therapy in Sport, 32, 126-132.
Garcia, J., Lera-López, F., & Suárez, M. J. (2011). Estimation of a structural model of the determinants of the time spent on physical activity and sport: Evidence for Spain. Journal of Sport Economics, 12(5), 515-535.
Gough, M. (2017). A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment. SSM - Population Health, 3, 294-304.
Green, M., & Houlihan, B. (2005). Elite sport development: Policy learning and political priorities. Abingdon: Routledge.
Greens, M., & Collins, S. (2008). Policy, Politics and Path Dependency: Sport Development in Australia and Finland. Sport Management Review, 11(3), 225-251.
Green, M., & Oakley, B. (2001). Elite sport development systems and playing to win: uniformity and diversity in international approaches. Leisure Studies, 20, 247-267.
Groth, D., Hartmann, S., Klie, S., & Selbig, J. (2013). Principal components analysis. Computational Toxicology, 930, 527-547.
Hidson, A. B., Gidlow, B., & Peebles, C. (1994). The trickle-down’ effect of top-level sport: Myth or reality? A Case-study of the Olympics. Australian Journal of Leisure and Recreation, 4, 16-24.
Hoekmana, M. J., Schulenkorfb, N., & Peacheyc, J. W. (2018). Re-engaging local youth for sustainable sport-for-development. Sport Management Review, 17, 1-13.
Homburg, C., Hoyer, W. D., & Koschate, N. (2005). Customers' reactions to price increases: Do customer satisfaction and perceived motive fairness matter? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 36-49.
Homburg, C., Koschate, N., & Totzek, D. (2010). How price increases affect future purchases: The role of mental budgeting, income, and framing. Psychology & Marketing, 27(1), 36-53.
Hong, F. (20008). China. In B. Houlihan, & M. Green (Eds.), Comparative elite sport development: Systems, structures and public policy (pp. 26–52). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Hooton, A. (2008). Great expectations. Sydney Morning Herald. Good Weekend (Sydney, Aust.; 17, May 2008, pp. 30-32 and 34-39.
Humphreys, B., Maresova, K., & Ruseski, J. (2012). Institutional factors, sport policy, and individual sport participation: An international comparison. Working Paper No. 2012-2001.
Humphreys, B. R., & Ruseski, J. E. (2007). Participation in physical activity and governmentspending on parks and recreation. Contemporary Economic Policy, 25, 538-552.
Humphreys, B., & Ruseski, J. E. (2011). An economic analysis of participation and time spent in physical activity. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 11(1), 1-38.
Humphreys, B., & Ruseski, J. E. (2015). The economic choice of participation and time spent in physical activity and sport in Canada. International Journal of Sport Finance, 10(2), 138-159.
Jafarzadegan, M., Safi-Esfahani, F., & Beheshti, Z. (2019). Combining hierarchical clustering approaches using the PCA Method. Expert Systems With Applications, 137, 1-10.
Kidd, B., & Donnelly, P. (2000). Human rights in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35(2), 131-148.
Kim, A., Choi, M., & Kaplanidou, K. (2015). The role of media in enhancing people’s perception of hosting a mega sport event: The case of Pyeongchang’s Winter Olympics bids. International Journal of Sport Communication, 8, 68-86.
Kjær, J. B. (2019). The professionalization of sports coaching: A case study of a graduate soccer coaching education program. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 24, 50-62.
Kokolakakis, T., Lera-López, F., & Panagouleas, T. (2012). Analysis of the determinants of sports participation in Spain and England. Applied Economics, 44(21), 2785-2798.
Kokolakakis, T., Lera-López, F., & Ramchandani, G. (2019). Did London 2012 deliver a sports participation legacy? Sport Management Review, 22(2), 276-287.
Konecke, T., Schubert, M., & Preuss, H. (2016). (N)Olympia in Germany? An analysis of the referendum against Munich 2022. Sportwissenschaft, 46, 15-24.
Korzynskia, P., & Paniagua, J. (2016). Score a tweet and post a goal: Social media recipes for sports stars. Business Horizons, 59(2), 185-192.
Kumar, H., Manolib, A. E., Hodgkinsona, I. R., & Downward, P. (2017). Sport participation: From policy, through facilities, to users’ health, well-being, and social capital. Sport Management Review, 21(5), 549-562.
Kyle, G. T., Kerstetter, D. L., & agnolo, F. B. (2003). Manipulating consumer price expectations for a 10K road race. Journal of Sport Management,, 17(2), 142-155.
Laker, A. (2002). The Sociology of Sport and Physical Education: An Introductory Reader. Routledge falmer, London and New York.
Liang, X., Bao, M., & Zhang, L. (2006). Juguo Tizhi’ [the whole country support for elite sport system]. Beijing: People’s Sports Publishing House of China..
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Lindstrom, M., Hanson, B., & Ostergern, P. (2001). Socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity: the role of social participation and social capital in shaping health related behaviour. Social Science and Medicine, 52, 441-451.
Løyland, K., & Ringstad, V. (2009). On the price and income sensitivity of the demand for sports: Has Linder’s disease become more serious? Journal of Sport Economics, 10(6), 601-618.
Lera-Lopez, F., & Rapun-Garate, M. (2007). The demand for sport: Sport consumption andparticipation models. Journal of Sport Management, 21, 103-122.
Macchia, L., Plagnol, A. C., & Reimers, S. (2018). Does experience with high inflation affect intertemporal decision making? Sensitivity to inflation rates in Argentine and British delay discounting choices. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 75, 76-83.
Macphail, A., Gorely, T., & Kirk, D. (2003). Young people's socialisation into sport: A case study of an athletics club. Sport, Education and Society, 8, 251-267.
Martín-Consuegra, D., Molina, A., & Esteban, A. (2007). An integrated model of price, satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical analysis in the service sector. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(7), 459-468.
Martin, S. G., Arin, K. P., Palakshappa, N., & Chetty, S. (2005). Do elite sports systems mean more Olympic medals? Retrieved July 15 from: http://commerce.-massey.ac.nz/research_outputs/2005/2005031.pdf.
Mutter, F., & Pawlowski, T. (2014). Role models in sports – Can success in professional sports increase the demand for amateur sport participation? Sport Management Review, 17(3), 324-336.
Oliveira-Brochado, A., Brito, P. Q., & F.Oliveira-Brochado. (2017). Correlates of adults’ participation in sport and frequency of sportCorrélats de la participation des adultes en sport et de la fréquence avec laquelle ils le pratiquent. Science & Sports, 32(6), 355-363.
Pedras, L., Taylor, T., & Frawley, S. (2019). Responses to multi-level institutional complexity in a national sport federation. Sport Management Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2019.05.001
Piotrowska, M. (2017). The impact of consumer behavior on financial security of households in Poland. Contaduría y Administración, 62(2), 461-504.
Post, E., Green, N., Schaefer, D., Trigsted, S., Brroks, M., McGuine, T., Watson, A.M., & Bell, D.R. (2018). Socioeconomic status of parents with children participating on youth club sport teams. Physical Therapy in Sport, 32, 126-132
Prins, R., Mohnen, S., Lenthe, F. , Brug, J., & Oenema, A. (2012). Are neighbourhood social capital and availability of sports facilities related to sports participation among Dutch adolescents? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(90), 2-11.
Ritchie, B. W., Shipway, R., & Chien, M. P. (2010). The role of the media in influencing residents’ support for the 2012 Olympic Games. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1, 202-219.
Roberts,K., Brodie, D. & Dench, S (1987). Youth unemployment and out-of-home recreation. Society and Leisure, 10(2), 281-294.
Rowe, K., Shilbury, D., Ferkins, L., & Hinckson, E. (2013). Sport development and physical activity promotion: An integrated model to enhance collaboration and understanding. Sport Management Review, 16(3), 364-377.
Ruseski, J. E., & Maresova, K. (2014). Economic freedom, sport policy, and individual participation in physical activity: An international comparison. Contemporary Economic Policy, 32, 42-55.
Ryan, C. (2015). Factors impacting carded athlete's readiness for dual careers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 21, 91-97.
Sandardos, S. S., & Chambers, T. P. (2019). “It’s not about sport, it’s about you”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of mentoring elite athletes. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 43, 144-154.
Sandardos, S., & Chmabers, T. (2019). “It’s not about sport, it’s about you”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of mentoring elite athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 43, 144-154.
Sanderson, J. (2011). It's a Whole New Ballgame: How Social Media is Changing Sports. New York: Hampton Press
Shilbury, D., Sotiriadou, K., & Green, B. C. (2008). Sport development systems,policies and pathways : An introduction to the special issue. Sport Management Review, 11, 217-223.
Shin, E.H. (2007). State, society, and economic development in sports life cycles: The case of boxing in Korea, East Asia, 24(1), 1–22.
Shlens, J. (2005). A tutorial on principal component analysis. Chichilnisky Neural Computation, 17, 1531-1576.
Sotiriadou, K. P., & Shilbury, D. (2009). Australian elite athlete development: An organisational perspective. Sport Management Review, 12(3), 137-148.
Stewart, B., Nicholson, M., Smith, A., & Westerbeek, H. (2004). ustralian sport: Better by design? The evolution of Australian sport policy. London: Routledge.
Smith, W. R. (2020). Organizing participation of a lifestyle sport: The constitutive power of new media discourse. Discourse, Context & Media, 33, March 2020, 100368.
Tan, T. C., & Green, M. (2008). Analysing China’s drive for Olympic success in 2008. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25(3), 314-338.
Taylor, W. G., & Garratt, D. (2010). The professionalisation of sports coaching: Relations of power, resistance and compliance. Sport, Education and Society, 15(1), 121-139.
Thibaut, E., Eakins, J., Vos, S., & Scheerder, J. (2017). Time and money expenditure in sports participation: The role of income in consuming the most practiced sports activities in Flanders. Sport Management Review, 20(5), 455-467.
Thibaut, E., Vos, S., & Scheerder, J. (2014). Hurdles for sports consumption?The determining factors of household sports expenditures. Sport Management Review, 17(4), 444-454.
Urminsky, O., & Zauberman, G. (2014). The psychology of intertemporal preferences. In G. Wu & G. Keren (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. Wiley-Blackwell.
Vandermeerschen, H., & Scheerder, J. (2017). Sport managers’ perspectives on poverty and sport: The role of local sport authorities. Sport Management Review, 20(5),510-521
Vescio, J., Wilde, K., & Crosswhite, J. J. (2005). Profiling sport role models to enhance initiatives for adolescent girls in physical education and sport. European Physical Education Review, 11(2), 153-170.
Wang, Z., Danish, Zhang, B., & Wang, B. (2018). Renewable energy consumption, economic growth and human development index in Pakistan: Evidence form simultaneous equation model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 184(20), 1081-1090.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2001). Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data (1 Ed. Vol. 1). Michigan State University.
Wicker, P., C Breuer, C., & Pawlowski, T. (2009). Promoting sport for all age-specific targetgroups. The impact of sport infrastructure. European Sport Management Quarterly, 9, 103-118.
Wijk, J. (2012). The Swedish ‘golf and tennis miracle’ – Two parallel stories. In S. S. Andersen & L. T. Ronglan (Eds.), Nordic elite sport: Same ambitions, different tracks (pp. 109–130). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Yang H. (Ed.). (2012). Theory and practice of China’s Olympic preparation and participation. Beijing: China Legal Publishing House.
Zhang, D., Shi, X., & Sheng, Y. (2015). Comprehensive measurement of energy market integration in East Asia: An application of dynamic principal component analysis. Energy Economics, 52(Part B), 299-305.
Zheng, J., Lau, P. W. C., Chen, S., Dickson, G., Bosscher, V. D., & Peng, Q. (2018). Interorganisational conflict between national and provincial sport organisations within China’s elite sport system: Perspectives from national organisations. Sport Management Review, 22(5), 667-681.
Zhou, R., & Kaplanidou, K. (2018). Building social capital from sport event participation: An exploration of the social impacts of participatory sport events on the community. Sport Management Review, 21(5), 491-503.